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Design and build
accessible PDF tables

12 March 2012

Kindle format

Design and build accessible PDF tables is now available in Kindle format from the Amazon bookstore (ISBN 9781620955260).

EPUB format

The book is also available in EPUB format from Kobo, Barnes & Noble the Sony bookstore, eBookPie and the Apple iBookstore.

Accessibility

Design and build accessible PDF tables has been built to be as accessible as possible, including an appropriate heading structure throughout, a table of contents, properly marked up lists, and alt text for all images. However, given the current technical limitations of the various ebook formats it was necessary to convert all of the book's 29 example tables to images. Versions in various states of completion (as appropriate to the text) are provided below in both PDF and HTML formats.

Sample tables

Sample tables from the book, PDF (141KB)

Chapter 1

Table 1: a simple 3 column, 3 row layout
Column header (TH) Column header (TH) Column header (TH)
Row header (TH) Data cell (TD) Data cell (TD)
Row header (TH) Data cell (TD) Data cell (TD)

Top

Chapter 2

Table 2: example of footnotes referenced from within a table
Expenditure by function, £ million 2009/10 2010/11 [1]
Policy functions Financial 22.50 30.57
Information [2] 10.20 14.80
Contingency 2.60 1.20
Remunerated functions Agency services [3] 44.70 35.91
Payments 22.41 19.88
Banking 22.90 44.23
Other 12.69 10.32

Top

Table 3: "film credits" style layout
Main character Daniel Radcliffe
Sidekick 1 Rupert Grint
Sidekick 2 Emma Watson
Lovable ogre Robbie Coltrane
Professor Maggie Smith
Headmaster Richard Harris

Top

Table 4: table 3 with column headers added
Role Actor
Main character Daniel Radcliffe
Sidekick 1 Rupert Grint
Sidekick 2 Emma Watson
Lovable ogre Robbie Coltrane
Professor Maggie Smith
Headmaster Richard Harris

Top

Table 5: year-end financial statement (£, thousands)
  2010 2009 2008
Non-current assets
Property 345 445 222
Investment 567 654 423
Intangibles 423 123 453
Current assets
Trade and other receivables 435 634 231
Cash and cash equivalents 524 123 482
Other 223 211 254

Top

Table 6: rainfall by continent (table with a more serious headings problem)
Rainfall (inches) Americas Asia Europe Africa
2010
Average 104 201 193 144
24 hour high 15 26 27 18
12 hour high 9 10 11 12
2009
Average 133 244 155 166
24 hour high 27 28 29 20
12 hour high 11 12 13 16

Top

Table 7: year-end statement, non-current assets (£, thousands)
Non-current assets 2010 2009 2008
Property 345 445 222
Investment 567 654 423
Intangibles 423 123 453

Top

Table 8: year-end statement, current assets (£, thousands)
Current assets 2010 2009 2008
Trade and other receivables 435 634 231
Cash and cash equivalents 524 123 482
Other 223 211 254

Top

Table 9: rainfall by continent, 2009
Rainfall (inches) Americas Asia Europe Africa
Average 133 244 155 166
24 hour high 27 28 29 20
12 hour high 11 12 13 16

Top

Table 10: self-contained year-end statement (£, thousands) (multiple layout problems)
  2011 2010 restated
General income   250,000   200,000
Increase in value   15,000   30,000
    265,000   230,000
Administrative costs
Staff costs (200,000)   (150,000)  
Early departures (10,000)   (20,000)  
Other operating costs (25,000)   (10,000)  
Depreciation (10,000)   (10,000)  
Programme costs
Impairment loss (10,000)   (5,000)  
Other (5,000)   (5,000)  
  (260,000)   (200,000)  
Surplus   5,000   30,000

Top

Table 11: self-contained year-end statement (£, thousands) (multiple layout problems resolved)
  2011 2010 restated
Income General income 250,000 200,000
Increase in value 15,000 30,000
Total income 265,000 230,000
Administrative costs Staff costs (200,000) (150,000)
Early departures (10,000) (20,000)
Other operating costs (25,000) (10,000)
Depreciation (10,000) (10,000)
Programme costs Impairment loss (10,000) (5,000)
Other (5,000) (5,000)
Total costs (260,000) (200,000)
Surplus 5,000 30,000

Top

Table 12: merged data cells are not recommended
  2008 2009
Name Yes No Yes No
Bob 2 5 6 7
Sue 3 8 4 7
Sam [data relating to both columns in a single cell spanning both] [data relating to both columns in a single cell spanning both]

Top

Chapter 3

Table 13: use of graphic symbols
Question Respondent A Respondent B Respondent C
Are you a UK citizen? No Yes No
Are you currently employed? Yes No Yes
Do you have a driving licence? No No Yes

Top

Table 14: graphics replaced by real text
Question Respondent A Respondent B Respondent C
Are you a UK citizen? No Yes No
Are you currently employed? Yes No Yes
Do you have a driving licence? No No Yes
Table 15: courses offered by institution X. A = Bachelor of Science, B = Bachelor of Arts, C = Masters, D = Doctorate, E = Diploma
  2006 2007 2008 2009
Economics A, B A, C A, B A, C
International relations A, E A, E A, B A, E
Philosophy A A A A, D
Politics A, D A, D A, D A
Mathematics B, C B A, E A, B
English A, C A, B A, B C

Top

Table 16: Masters courses offered by institution X
  2006 2007 2008 2009
Economics No Yes No Yes
International relations No No No No
Philosophy No No No No
Politics No No No No
Mathematics Yes No No No
English Yes No No Yes

Top

Table 17: accounts, 2011 (£, thousands) (inappropriate use of colour)
Accounting item 2011
Income General income 200,000
Increase in value 30,000
Income subtotal 230,000
Administrative costs Staff 150,000
Early departures 20,000
Other operating costs 10,000
Depreciation 10,000
Programme costs Impairment loss 10,000
Costs subtotal 200,000
Balance 30,000

Top

Table 18: accounts, 2011 (£, thousands)
Accounting item 2011
Income General income 200,000
Increase in value 30,000
Income subtotal 230,000
Administrative costs Staff (150,000)
Early departures (20,000)
Other operating costs (10,000)
Depreciation (10,000)
Programme costs Impairment loss (10,000)
Costs subtotal (200,000)
Balance 30,000

Top

Table 19: Human Development Index (HDI) trends, 1980 to 2010. Source: Barro-Lee March, 2010
Country 1980 1990 2000 2010
Afghanistan 0.78 1.48 2.16 3.33
Albania 8.89 9.67 9.89 10.38
Algeria 4.74 3.33 5.50 7.24
Andorra 4.98 5.63 9.09 10.35
Angola - - 4.42 4.42

Top

Table 20: footnotes referenced from within a table
Expenditure by function, £ million 2009/10 2010/11[1]
Policy functions Financial 22.5 30.57
Information [2] 10.2 14.8
Contingency 2.6 1.2
Remunerated functions Agency services [3] 44.7 35.91
Payments 22.41 19.88
Banking 22.90 44.23
Other 12.69 10.32

Top

Table 21: footnotes replaced by additional table summary text
Expenditure by function, £million 2009/10 2010/11
Policy functions Financial 22.5 30.57
Information 10.2 14.8
Contingency 2.6 1.2
Remunerated functions Agency services 44.7 35.91
Payments 22.41 19.88
Banking 22.90 44.23
Other 12.69 10.32

Top

Table 22: referencing endnotes from within a table
Expenditure £million Notes
(see page [n])
2010 2011
Information [1] 10.2 14.8
Contingency   2.6 1.2
Payments [3] 22.41 19.88
Banking services [4] 22.90 44.23
Interest   0.23 0.10
Dividends [23] 2.5 3.68
Other [9] 12.69 10.32

Top

Chapter 4

Table 23: simulated table created using tabs and containing no structure
  2008 2009
Name Entered Completed Entered Completed
Bob 22 21 20 19
Sue 44 12 12 10
Sam 16 4 45 30

Top

Table 24: year-end financial statement (£, thousands)
  2010 2009 2008
Non-current assets
Buildings 345 445 222
Investment 567 654 423
Intangibles 423 123 453
Current assets
Trade 435 634 231
Cash 524 123 482
Other 223 211 254
Current liabilities
Trade liabilities 154 125 421
Financial debt 231 474 572
Provisions 111 312 347

Top

Table 25: setting column and row header scope via the tags panel
  2008 2009
Name Entered Won Entered Won
Bob 22 21 20 19
Sue 44 12 12 10
Sam 16 4 45 30
Table 26: Table 15: courses offered by institution X. A = Bachelor of Science, B = Bachelor of Arts, C = Masters, D = Doctorate, E = Diploma
  2006 2007 2008 2009
Economics A, B A, C A, C A, C
International relations A, E A, E A, B A, B
Philosophy A A A A
Politics A, D A, D A, B A
Mathematics B, C B A, B A, B
English A, C A, B A, B A, C

Top

Table 27: "table" with columns simulated via tab stops
Name Apples Pears
Bob Scott 20 25
Susan. P. Arnold-Jones, BA, FRSA, MD 24 15
Sam Holder-Dickinson 14 10

Top

Table 28: year-end financial statement (£, thousands) – headings problem revisited
  2010 2009 2008
Non-current assets
Buildings 345 445 222
Investment 567 654 423
Intangibles 423 123 453
Current assets
Trade 435 634 231
Cash 524 123 482
Other 223 211 254
Current liabilities
Trade liabilities 154 125 421
Financial debt 231 474 572
Provisions 111 312 347

Top

Table 29: multiple headers attributes required for each data cell
  South America Asia Africa Australia
2010
Highest average 523.6 467.4 405.0 340.5
Highest in 24 hours 73.1 54.1 27.2 66.3
Highest in 12 hours 42.4 30.1 15.9 40.3
2009
Highest average 487.7 453.6 398.7 356
Highest in 24 hours 67.2 53.2 44.3 53.8
Highest in 12 hours 34.7 34.1 29.8 31.0
2008
Highest average 496.7 444.3 502.1 399.6
Highest in 24 hours 44.2 56.7 32.1 63.2
Highest in 12 hours 30.1 32.7 21.9 40.2

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Ted Page Director PWS

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